Saturday, May 23, 2020

Charles Marlow s Heart Of Darkness - 2003 Words

â€Å"Now when I was a little chap I had a passion for maps. I would look for hours at South America, or Africa, or Australia and lose myself in all the glories of exploration. At that time there were many blank spaces on earth, and when I saw one that looked particularly inviting on a map I would put my finger on it and say, when I grow up I will go there† (Conrad 8). This statement is very powerful. Here we have Charles Marlow reflecting on his younger self. We as readers are given the impression of how different parts of the world, mainly unexplored parts of the world were viewed. Marlow’s story in Heart of Darkness takes place in the Congo, which is a well-known European colony in Africa. The Congo is infamous for the Europeans greed and how they treated the native people. Many questions arise from this text which can be considered a masterpiece in its own right. One of our main concerns as a reader is to why Marlow wanted to go to the Congo so badly and wh at did he expected to see and endure while there. Since the Congo is a â€Å"blank space† on a map are we to believe that this region is civilized or uncivilized? The Heart of Darkness shows that a civilized man can be placed in an unknown world with no restrictions, and the desire for power can overcome him. Even though a man can tell himself that he is civilized, but the world that surrounds him can turn him into something that he’s not. What is it to be civilized? This is a difficult question to answer becauseShow MoreRelated Psychological, Philosophical and Religious Elements of Heart of Darkness901 Words   |  4 PagesPsychological, Philosophical and Religious Elements of Heart of Darkness      Ã‚   Heart of Darkness is a kind of little world unto itself.   The reader of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness should take the time to consider this work from a psychological point of view. There are, after all, an awful lot of heads and skulls in the book, and Conrad goes out of his way to suggest that in some sense Marlows journey is like a dream or a return to our primitive past--an exploration of the dark recesses of theRead More Colonialism and Imperialism in Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay1016 Words   |  5 PagesImperialism Exposed in Conrads Heart of Darkness      Ã‚   Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is a novel about European imperialism and its far-reaching effects. Conrad relates his personal opinions through the protagonist, Marlow, who learns a great deal about imperialism while on a journey to the African Congo. Although Heart of Darkness seems to be an anti-imperialistic work, this is not entirely true. Conrad condemns the overly idealistic nature of imperialism, but does not attack BritainsRead MoreEssay on Modernism in Literature1532 Words   |  7 PagesThe turn of the 20th century conveyed revolution in psychological, social, and philosophical thought. It was time for something neoteric. It was time to break out of the mundane tradition. This time of revolution conceded men, such as Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud, to rise to fame with their radical and cutting edge theories. Also, women were exasperated of their modeled roles in society. They sought to be independent, they longed to have the ability to vote, and most of all, theyRead More The Evil of Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad1559 Words   |  7 PagesColonialism in Heart of Darkness   Ã‚  Ã‚   A masterpiece of twentieth-century writing, Heart of Darkness exposes the tenuous fabric that holds civilization together and the brutal horror at the center of European colonialism. Joseph Conrads novella, Heart of Darkness, describes a life-altering journey that the protagonist, Marlow, experiences in the African Congo.   The story explores the historical period of colonialism in Africa to exemplify Marlows struggles. Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is mostRead MorePsychoanalytic Perspective Of Kurtz s Heart Of Darkness1200 Words   |  5 PagesHari Krishnan - Period 4 Post AP Literary Theory - Dr. Parchesky September 29th, 2017 Psychoanalytic perspective of Kurtz in Heart of Darkness The novel Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad reveals the uncanny similarities between the Europeans and the natives as well as demonstrates why imperialism is not â€Å"civilizing† the natives. Although Conrad often dehumanizes the natives, he still demonstrates that Europeans still are savage in some ways. Kurtz is an example of the savagery still remnant in EuropeanRead MoreThings Fall Apart And Heart Of Darkness Analysis910 Words   |  4 PagesSociological Approach to Compare Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart with Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness In everyday life, we are always comparing, even subconsciously with even knowing it. When we compare things, we look at what the similarities are in said items such as a popular brand or a generic one. Comparing things such as two literary works, Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, and, Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad, both have a lot of similarities that we will look at. In Things FallRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1519 Words   |  7 PagesHeart of Darkness, a short novel written by Joseph Conrad, takes place on The Nellie, a cruising yawl, where Charles Marlow tells his fellow adventurers the tale of his conquest into the heart of Africa. As an ivory transporter for the Company, sailing down the Congo River, Marlow embarks on a journey, observing European imperialism in central Africa and the radical tendencies of man outside of civilization. On his journey, Marlow is introduced to the infamous Kurtz, a professional ivory trader andRead MoreExposing Colonialism and Imperialism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness1940 Words   |  8 PagesThe Evil of Colonialism Exposed in Heart of Darkness       Marlow was an average European man with average European beliefs. Like most Europeans of his time, Marlow believed in colonialism; that is, until he met Kurtz. Kurtz forces Marlow to rethink his current beliefs after Marlow learns the effects of colonialism deep in the African Congo. In Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, Marlow learns that he has lived his entire life believing in a sugar-coated evil.   Marlows understanding of KurtzsRead MoreBelgian Congo vs. Holocaust1570 Words   |  7 Pagesbacked up by science, were the reason why they felt entitled to commit these actions. We could also find a number of sympathizers that would try to fight for the victims’ human rights. In the Belgian Congo we can find the story of Charles Marlow, the narrator of Heart of Darkness, which attempted to expose the atrocities committed by the ivory company that he actually worked for. â€Å"The earth seemed unearthly. We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of a conq uered monster, but there— there you couldRead MoreHeart of Darkness and Wide Sargasso Sea: Depiction and Effect Due to Colonization2003 Words   |  9 PagesHeart of Darkness and Wide Sargasso Sea: Depiction and Effect Due to Colonization Both Heart of Darkness and Wide Sargasso Sea deal with Englishmen, Charles Marlow and Mr. Rochester, who are placed in unfamiliar and different environments than accustomed to. These two characters not only deal with their own personal struggles, but are connected to the struggles of people close to them (namely Kurtz and Antoinette).Joseph Conrad and Jean Rhys attribute these hardships to the effects of colonialism

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Risk Management in Hydro Power - 5207 Words

Risk Management In Hydro Power Plants – 18th African Hydro Symposium October 2006 By Joshua Chirikutsi – Zimbabwe Power Company- Kariba South Power station Abstract Hydro power plants like any other business encounter risks in all areas of its operations, but especially in the areas of producing and marketing electricity. As the Electricity supply industry reforms unfold the resultant deregulation brings in several market regulatory and trade related risks. The paper will discuss the general risks affecting Power utilities and will place particular emphasis on hydropower plant operations by analysing the effect of maintenance and operations quality in power plant risk management. 1.Introduction Electric power companies and their†¦show more content†¦The kinds of risks to be managed are decomposed into various classifications as described below. Risk can also be analysed along the value chain and risk management interventions are applied at each stage of the value chain 4.1 General Risks 4.1.1 Price Or Market Risk - comprises the risks to which the company is exposed due to uncertainties in the price of electricity on the market. Volumetric Risk encompasses risks arising from production uncertainty, consumption uncertainty, and uncertainties in the power supply. 4.1.2 Financial Risks, - credit or liquidity risk is especially important in trading. We can divide this risk into two segments; specific credit and systematic credit. Other financial risks include interest-rate risk and currency risk. 4.1.3 Regulatory Risk arises from extra-market factors, such as legal complications, changes and ambiguities in regulations, and political decisions. This risk is especially present in the initial phases of deregulation of the ESI 4.1.4 Modelling Risk can arise when a companys portfolio has been incorrectly valued due to flawed modelling assumptions flawed modelling methodology, or the wrong choice of a model. 4.1.5 Human Error Risks include mistakes in evaluation and analysis, and errors in all aspect of the value chain form power plant operations, maintenance, trading etc. 4.1.6Operational risk At utility level Operational risk is defined as the risk of incurringShow MoreRelatedCase Study Questions On Risk Management Essay999 Words   |  4 PagesDate: 4th October, 2016 Risk Management; DNSC-6254 Risk Management â€Å"Case Study # 2 - ERM† Prepared by: The A Team Aurelia Lianda   Rafael Aita   Nathan Peppler   Osamah Alturki   Moyaid Aseel Table of Contents Page 1. Question # 1.1 3 a) Question # 1.1 – (1.1.1) 3 b) Question # 1.1 – (1.1.2) 3 c) Question # 1.1 – (1.1.3) 3 2. Question # 1.2 4 a) Question # 1.2 – (1.2.1) 4 b) Question # 1.2 – (1.2.2) Read MoreEnergy Finance Americas ( Sfs Ef )1621 Words   |  7 PagesThese three power stations are Chickwat Creek, Ramona Lake and Ramona Creek. All of the generating stations are situated in the Tzoonie River, Narrows Inlet watershed in the Sunshine Coast region of British Columbia (approximately 50 miles from Vancouver, BC). The three hydro generating stations, totaling 34.5MWs, are summarized below: TSLP will sell the energy output under a single 30-year Electricity Purchase Agreement (â€Å"EPA†) to British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (â€Å"BC Hydro†) (Aaa; SFSRead MoreEssay On Clean Energy And Bc Community1212 Words   |  5 PagesEnergy and BC Communities ââ€"  Clean energy projects bring immense benefits to local communities in all regions of BC. ââ€"  There has been nearly $9 billion invested by the private clean energy sector. ââ€"  In addition, there have been millions of dollars of risk capital spent prospecting and permitting potential sites, with environmental, resource, preliminary engineering, and interconnection studies, as well as First Nations engagement and negotiations. ââ€"  CEBC estimates that our sector pays back $200 millionRead MoreThe Potential For A Supply Shortage1184 Words   |  5 Pagesproportion of electricity supplied by hydro power in New Zealand. Historic low storage capacity of many hydro plants attributed to both lack of foresight and environmental impact entails that the plants sometimes offer at low cost as they need to continuously cycle the water. A wet year will result in low costs, and a system flush with hydro power that might contribute to thermal generation running at margins and susceptible to closure. Low cost generation such as hydro and wind contribute to a diminishedRead MoreEnergy Crisis : Individual Research Briefing1629 Words   |  7 Pages1 Energy Capacity and demand in Tasmania 5 2.1.2 The Tasmanian Energy Crisis 6 2.1.3 Temporary response 6 2.1.4 The Tamar Valley Power Station (TVPS) Facts and Figures 6 2.2 Recommendation no. 1 7 3 Increasing the energy storage level 8 3.1 Findings 8 3.1.1 Currant energy storage level 8 3.1.2 Rainfall forecast for 2016 8 3.1.3 Cloud Seeding 8 3.1.4 Energy Security Risk Assessment 8 3.1.5 Critical storage level 9 3.2 Recommendation no. 2 9 4 Conclusion 10 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The StateRead MoreHydro Power3834 Words   |  16 Pagesfrom other sources or transmission of power over long distances would not be feasible. Cost of building the plant and return on investment is fast compared to large hydro and hence would attract many private investors to invest. * Rehabilitation and resettlement which is the major concern in a democratic country like India and hence this scheme is the most useful. * There is no loss of forest land due to submergence. * WRITE A NOTE ON ECONOMY OF HYDRO VIS-À-VIS OTHER SOURCES OF GENERATIONRead MorePros And Cons Of Site C1362 Words   |  6 PagesThe Federal Joint Review Panel found that Site C would result in significant adverse and cumulative environmental effects. These include: o Significant unmitigated losses to wildlife and rare plants, including losses to species under the Species at Risk Act and to game and plant resources preferred by Aboriginal peoples. o Significant unmitigated losses to fish and fish habitat, including three distinct sub-groups of fish preferred by Aboriginal peoples, one of which is federally listed as a speciesRead MoreHydro One: Case Study Questions2401 Words   |  10 PagesHydro One Case 1.a) How has being a local, regulated utility shaped the risk profile of Hydro One? The problem with being regulated made the company improve its performance and profile in multiple dimensions. The restrictions imposed on the company by various authorities in fact helped the company innovate and look deep into the functional aspects and also the risk aspect. For example the regulations forced the enterprise to reconsider its functioning. One of the major problems began with theRead MoreCase Study: Application of Real Options to Energy Investments1718 Words   |  7 Pagesas Net Present Value (NPV) or Internal Rate of Return (IRR) do not consider relevant project characteristics like irreversibility, uncertainty and management flexibility. They propose that the Real Options Approach (ROA) has an advantage over conventional methods. The aim of this essay is to apply real options to a renewable energy investment (mini-hydro plant) using the binomial lattice tree developed by Cox, Ross and Rubinstein. Economic evaluation of energy investments Electricity generation projectsRead MoreFinancing Green Energy1470 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The term Green energy refers to energy sources which have less injurious impacts on the environment in comparison with the traditional sources of fuel such petroleum, coal, natural gas etc. The use of green energy is intended to produce power without causing much harm to the natural habitat and also in a rather pollution free manner. Indonesia has been taking measures and been involved in policy reforms meant for facilitating the use of green energy. Various projects have been initiated

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Information Technology Free Essays

REPORT ON ATTACHMENT AT KENYA POWER AND LIGHTING COMPANY FOR THE PERIOD SEPTEMBER TO NOVEMBER 2009 NAME OF STUDENT: LESIAMITO DUNCAN SAIDIMU REGISTRATION NO: MAC-1-295-2/2007 NAME OF LECTURER: MR. RONALD WANYONYI Report submitted to the department of Computer information systems in particular fulfillment of the requirement for the bachelors of Science degree in computer information systems. SUBMISSION DATE: 9th December 2009 DECLARATION: I declare that this is my original work and has not been presented anywhere else to the best of my knowledge. We will write a custom essay sample on Information Technology or any similar topic only for you Order Now Name†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦. Signature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Date†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ CONFIRMATION BY THE SUPERVISOR I confirm work has not been presented anywhere else to the best of my knowledge. Name†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Signature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Date†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Dedication I dedicate this report to my family and colleagues both in attachment and school who have been very supportive throughout the period I have been on my attachment. Acknowledgements I would wish to appreciate the greatly indebted support from the KPLC ITT staff. They offered a warm reception of orientation in all operation and greatly dedicated their precious effort guiding me throughout my attachment period. I also thank my supervisor Mr. Wanyonyi for guiding and assisting during the attachment period and in writing this report. I thank the Almighty father for the wonderful opportunity and strength during this period. Abstract This is report on my internship that I undertook in Kenya Power and Lighting Co. Ltd Central Rift region IT T department for the period September-November 2009. It entails the activities and duties assigned to me during this period they involved printer fault diagnosis and repair, software installation and configuration, preventive maintenance, taking of inventory and hardware repair and replacement. It also came across different software, hardware and Information Systems that I used, repaired, installed or configured; these included Ics, Dcs, Tms among others. The attachment was about implementing the theoretical skills gained in the class practically as well as developing a room for further research and exchange of ideas. I got to interact with many people who helped me educationally, emotionally and socially I company should decentralize some of administration support activities to the branch offices in order to reduce delays the delivery of services. Table of content Acknowledgements†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Abstract. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦ Table of content. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦ Dedication†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. List of Symbols and Their Respective Meanings. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦ CHAPTER ONE Introduction. †¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦ Location. †¦ †¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Information Technology. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ Telecommunication†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦. Kenya Power and Lighting Ltd Vision Statement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦ Kenya Power and Lighting Ltd Mission statement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦.. †¦ KPLC core values. . †¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦.. †¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ KPLC Internal Motto. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦.. †¦ KPLC External Motto. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. KPLC’S ROLE†¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Organization Details. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Transmission and distribution†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦ Demand/supply of electricity:†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Organizational Structure Central Rift (Nakuru). †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ IT T Policy Document. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Objectives of IT T†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦ Vision of IT T Division†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦. †¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦.. †¦ Definition of IT T Policy.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ CHAPTER TWO Duties /Activities. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Information Technology Department. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Data Network.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Duties†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Software†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Hardware†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Information Systems†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ CHAPTER THREE Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦. Significance of the course to the attachment†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Significance of the course to the attachment†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Critiques. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦. Recommendations. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦. List of symbols and their respective meanings LCA: – Local Collection Application DCS: – Design and Construction System ICS: – Integrated Customer Service CPU: – Central Processing Unit PC: – Personal Computer MS Exchange: – Microsoft Exchange LRA: – Local Reading Application UPS: – Uninterrupted Power Supply HHS: -Hand Held Set SCADA: -System Control and Data Acquisition RTU: -Remote Terminal Unit DTU: -Data Terminal Unit ITT Information Technology and Telecommunication TKL:- Telkom Kenya. KDN: -Kenya Data Network. 1. CHAPTER ONE 1. 1 Introduction. The Kenya Power and Lighting Company Ltd. (KPLC) is a limited liability company responsible of electricity transmission, distribution and retailing in Kenya. The company is a national electric utility, managing electric, licensing, billing, emergency electricity service and customer relations. It is a Public limited company listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) with the Government of Kenya owning 51% and 49% by the public in form of share ownership. KPLC was incorporated in 1922 as the East African Power Lighting Company (EAPL). It changed its name to The Kenya Power and Lighting Company Ltd. (KPLC) in 1983. Before a major power sector restructuring in 1997, KPLC managed all generating stations on behalf of the Government. Currently, KPLC manages some diesel-generating stations which are owned by the government known as Independent power producers (IPP), which are isolated from the national grid in marginalized areas such as Merti, Lodwar and Baragoi. 1. 2 Contacts Central Office Address: Kenya power and Lighting Company, P. O Box 30099, Nairobi. Tel: 020-32013201, Website: www. plc. co. ke Nakuru Office Address. Kenya power and Lighting Company. P. O Box 104-20100. Nakuru. Tel 051-2211594 Cell: 073560006 0720860006 Website: www. kplc. co. ke 1. 3 Location. The Central office is Located at Stima Plaza on Kolobot Road, Nairobi. The company’s main functions are carried out under various divisions. These include customer service, Distribution (Design and construction, Operations and maintenance), Energy Transmission, Human Resources Administration, Transport Supplies, Finance, Information Technology and Telecommunication. Internal Audit, Protective Services and Communications departments fall directly under the Managing Director. The company has six administrative areas. These are; Nairobi Region, Mt Kenya Region, Coast Region, North Rift Region, Central Rift Region and West-Kenya Region. All services offered by the main divisions are replicated in each area, which are headed by functional heads who report to the Regional Manager. A Kenya Power And Lighting Company (Central Rift) office is located at Electricity House along Moi Road next to Provincial Commissioner Offices in Nakuru. It contains departmental offices within the various divisions, which perform different functions. An example of these departments is the IT T department which handles ICT functions within the company. The Central Rift Region has other offices linked to it, represented diagrammatically as below: |Ravine | |Maralal | |Lanet | | | | | |NAKURU | |Narok | |Nyahururu | |Naivasha | KPLC Vision Statement. To achieve world class status as a quality service business enterprise so as to be the first choice supplier of electrical energy in a competitive environment. † KPLC Mission statement. â€Å"To efficiently transmit and distribute high quality electricity throughout Kenya at cost effective tariffs; to achieve the highest standards of customer service; and to ensure the company’s long-term technical and financial viability†. KPLC core values. †¢ Customer driven †¢ Teamwork †¢ Results driven †¢ People focused †¢ Empowerment Innovation †¢ Prof essionalism †¢ Equal opportunity †¢ Ethics/Integrity †¢ Social responsibility †¢ Environment friendly KPLC Internal Motto. â€Å"My company my pride† KPLC External Motto. â€Å"On public Service† KPLC’S Role. KPLC owns and operates the entire electricity transmission and distribution system in Kenya, and sells electricity to over 1 million customers. The company’s key operations include: ? Planning, designing, construction and maintenance of the distribution network. ? Customer service. ? Ensuring sufficient transmission capacity to meet demand 1. 4 Organization Details 1. 4. 1Transmission and distribution KPLC is responsible for ensuring ample transmission capacity to maintain supply and facilitate quality electricity. It also develops and maintains the distribution networks and satisfactory services to the customer. The combined network of transmission and Distribution lines stretch for more than 23,000 kilometers across the country. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages. In Kenya, electrical power is generated between 11 and 15kV. The electricity is then stepped up to 220kV or 132kV for transmission to sub-stations large power users. It is then stepped down to 66kV, 33kV and 11kV at various feeder points for distribution to consumers. Large industrial and commercial customers are supplied at these high voltages. The electricity is stepped down to 415v/240v for other consumers 1. 4. 2 Demand and Supply of electricity: Demand for electricity in Kenya stands at around 825 MW. However, the country has an installed generating capacity of more than 1,200 MW, though sometimes about 15% of this is usually unavailable due to drought and shutdowns of generating plants to facilitate repairs and Maintenance. 1. 4. 3 Organizational Structure Central Rift (Nakuru) 1. 5 IT Telecommunication DIVISION IT T is a division is divided into two departments; IT and telecommunication. Information Technology. This department handles all computer hardware (Pc’s and servers), data Communication, Software issues and advices on all the matters that’s relate to IT. Telecommunication. The function of this Department is to provide efficient and reliable communication system within the company and other regions. This Includes Radio Communication ,Telephony and Communication through PLC. 1. 6 IT T Policy Document. 1. 6. 1 Introduction. Since the first edition was written in Year 2002, a number of improvements have been made and the ICT technology keeps changing for the better. This second edition of the ICT Policy incorporates the changes that have been realized so far. Included especially is the â€Å"IT Review and Action Plan† document, dated October 31, 2006. Information and Communications Technology Policy addresses security issues and how to effectively apply and maintain information systems, thereby facilitating protection of critical, valuable and confidential information together with its associated systems. Most people are likely to recognize the impact and severity of the loss or theft of confidential designs for a new product. However they do not always recognize the potential risk, and consequential result, of seemingly ‘innocent’ activities, such as copying software or copying the corporate database onto their laptop computer or not documenting changes made to their systems. The purchase and installation of hardware and software requires those involved to consider carefully the Information Security issues involved in this process. Careful consideration of the company’s business needs is paramount, as it is expensive to make subsequent changes. Analysis of user requirements versus the various benchmarks test results, will establish the best choice of server/software to be purchased. Installation of new equipment must be properly considered and planned to avoid unnecessary disruption and to ensure that the IT T Policy issues are adequately covered. The issue of IT consumables is looked into. These are expensive and should be properly controlled both from an expense perspective as well as an Information Security perspective. Valuable items should always be kept in a secure environment to avoid damage or loss. 1. 2 Objectives of IT . To provide efficient, effective and reliable communication systems that meets and exceeds KPLC voice and data requirements. To ensure availability of the communications systems that exceeds the set target of 97% To continually improve the telecommunication systems to meet and conform to the current world standards. To ensure mnaximum customer satisfaction in the IT division. 1. 6. 3 Vision for IT T Division. We strive to provide nothing but the best means of data and telecommunications services to the company and the country as a whole. 1. 6. Definition of IT T Policy. A set of rules, regulations, procedures and plans of action for administration of equipment resources, and services in the IT T division. CHAPTER TWO. 2. 1 Duties and Activities. During my attachment in the Information Technology and Telecommunications (IT) division. the following are among the duties I was designated to perform. †¢ Software Installation. †¢ Printer Fault Diagnosis and Repairs. †¢ Antivirus Installation. †¢ Preventive Maintenance. †¢ Networking. †¢ User support. †¢ Taking of inventory. †¢ Repair and maintenance of various hardware. j[ 2. 2 SOFTWARES The following are the software used in the various departments and which I was exposed to in installation and support. †¢ Microsoft Windows Server 2003. †¢ McAfee Version 8. 5i †¢ Microsoft office 2007 †¢ Power Builder †¢ Oracle 9i †¢ SQL Server †¢ AutoCAD. †¢ SPS (Strategic Planning System). †¢ Adobe reader 2. 3 Hardware PCs Ups. Server: Cisco routers, switches Printers. HHS. Network cables. 2. 4 Information systems a). ICS (Integrated Customer Service Application) This is an online System with a centralized Database situated at the Head office. Used by Cashiers, Customer Service Officers, and Meter Reading. The Software integrates a number of functions that is Contracting New Customers, Billing of Customer, Cash Collection etc. b). DCS Online(Design and Construction System) This is an online system interfaced with ICS System which Design Engineers Use to do costing of Service line Applications. The same is also used for booking of Service line construction Materials from Stores Section. c). DCS Offline (Design and Construction System offline). An Offline system used by Designers to download jobs ,design lines and cost projects and later upload the jobs to the DCS online system after they complete the job. d). LCA (Local Collection Application) This is an offline Cash Collection Application mainly used by Cashiers when the ICS System Fails. The transactions are a stored locally on a Batch file which is later downloaded to the Central Database. e). TMS (Transport Management System) This is a system used by the Transport Department and Costing Section to keep records of company vehicles and their maintenance costs. Also used to keep records on mileage returns and labor cost returns. f). LRA (Local Reading Application) This is a system designed to upload and download meter reading records from the ICS system for billing. The HHS set is used for this purpose connected via COM1 port. This system is used by the meter-reading section under customer service department. This system helps to determine how much the customer has consumed and hence the amount to be charged. g). Medicare Application. This is a system used to keep the medical expenditure records of the KPLC employees and their dependants. It is used by the human resource administration department. h). IMS (Incidence Management System) This is an Online System Used by the Operation and Maintenance Department to keep track of Temporary Power line Break downs and customer complaint on Blackouts and Voltage fluctuation. ). EIS (Executive Information System) This is a system interfaced with all other company Systems and it provides the executive with summarized reports to facilitate Decision making and Policy formulation. j). MDB (Management Database System) This is a system that summaries all the operations in ICS System and presents it in a report form. Used by management to monitor Performance. k). SAP (Sys tem Application and Products) This is a System used in the Finance Procurement Department. It keeps Supplier Records, Payroll Management, and Company Budget Management etc. l). Scada This is a system that is used for Tele operation on the power station. This includes Telemetry and Switching, by the engineers at the National control center to all the manned and unmanned station m). Ripples System This system is used to control street lighting and water heaters. This is achieved by automatically varying the frequencies on the power 2. 5 Data Network. The KPLC C/Rift has an extensive data network thus enabling it to have distributed systems where users can access network resources such as the databases that are centralized and other network resources such as Printers. I was involved in installation of networks that is trucking and terminations cables and labeling of data points, configuration installation of network Equipments such as the routers and switches of the cabinets. WAN for C/Rift TKL KDN At the end of each modem there is a Router and a Switch connected to it to form a network. Each Modem is connected to the Router through a V. 35 Cable CHAPTER THREE 3. 1 Conclusion. During my internship I have really gained a lot and I really endeavored the industrial attachment basically because it granted me an exposure and a chance to evaluate my potential. I was able to learn about many systems and practices in the IT world. I also got an opportunity to travel to different areas and interact with other people. I got used to working environment. 3. 2 Significance of the program to the attachment The program equipped me with the theoretical base which I was able to relate to the practical setting. I also gained interpersonal skills and wide knowledge due to the fact that the program offers various from diverse fields. 3. 3 Significance of the student learning I was able to learn more about hardware, software and the information systems used in the real life. I able to interact with other staff and students on attachment from various institutions to share ideas. 3. 4 Critiques. During my internship period I noted a few IT practices that hindered smooth running of operations in the IT T Division This includes these following, †¢ Most of the users are not are willing to use the helpdesk system thus hindering proper service delivery. †¢ Many system administration support are centralized at the regional office thus causing delays in service delivery. †¢ Many of the users are not conversant with basic computer operation. †¢ Use of old machine which are very slow. The company had most of the hardware and software that are in the IT world so I gained enough practical. †¢ The company offered attachment places to many student and so the was interaction among different students. 3. 5 Recommendations. 1. The organization should have tint windows or blenders to protect machines from direct sunlight 2. Security measurements s hould be implemented 3. Single server unit should be provided to help in the machine management in all labs 4. Tables in the labs are so uncomfortable in the sense that when you put the sit inside you are unable to put legs Reference 1. KPLC website www. kplc. co. ke 2. Stima journal ———————– Regional Manager Asst Manager Energy transmission Eng. Revenue finance officer IT/T Eng Customer service Eng. Distribution Eng HR/Adm officer Transport Eng. Asst. HR Administration Telecom Asst distributor engineer Asst customer service IT support Asst Energy Eng. Asst accountant Customer service clerk Energy transmission technician Revenue accountant Distributor technician DTU DTU Gilgil Maralal Ravine Narok Nku Depot Lanet Nyahururu Molo Naivasha Nakuru R O U T E R How to cite Information Technology, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Intention and the Plan of the Business Goals

Question: Describe about the Strategic Human Resource Management. Answer: Introduction Strategic Human Resource Management is the intention and the plan of the business goals, which could be achieved through the employees. There are three positions, which are based on the strategic Human Resource Management. The first human capital is one of the major sources in to achieve the competitive advantage. Secondly it is the employees who implement the strategic plan and thirdly, the systematic approach needs to adopt for defining the where the organization wants to go and how they will reach there (Truss et al. 2012). Strategic HRM process involves the development of the strategies of HR, which is correlated, with the business strategy. The HR and finally the implementation of the strategy can segment the strategic human resource management into two phases the initial phase is the strategy formulation. It ensures that the policies related with HRM need to cohere both the policy areas as well as the hierarchies. It would enable the organization to decide with the long-term performance of the organization. The implementation of the strategic HRM would result in the strategic view of the HR function, which would relate with the business functions of the organization (Rewards and Plans 2013). I am working currently in HR department of McDonalds. The plan has been initiated for the role of HR Director in implementing the strategic Human Resource strategy. Organizations Vision and Mission Vision The vision of McDonald is to become one of the most progressive companies of the world through experiencing the customers with its best quality service. They focus on providing tasty and high- quality food to their customers. They want their customers to make feel of as valued customers of their store. The companys primary and most important vision lies in the fact of implementing the innovation through the satisfaction to their customers and following the current need of the customers. To follow the vision the organization uses various methods of its development so that it meets with the customers expectation (McDonald wants to achieve its vision through enduring the three broad objectives. The first among it is to become the best employer for its worldwide customers. The second objective is to distribute the operational excellence to its customers in each of its stores. The third objective is to endure a profitable growth through the expansion of the brand and strength of the compa nys system implying the innovation and technology ( 2016). Mission McDonald Mission includes the details about the market position through its establishing of most preferred place for customers to eat and drink. The company further highlighted the human resource management approach through its mission of creating its most desired place for the people to work. Again the company highlighted the corporate social responsibility position through initiating the positivity in the presence of the community ( 2016). Strategic HR Issues The McDonald is the leader in the food corporation which retails more than 117 countries and has more than 60 million of employees. The head of the human resource is lead by the McDonald United Kingdom office. The main issue related with the McDonald is the huge turnover rate along with the recruitment challenges. Again huge cost is associates with the recruitment and the training of the employees within the organization. The most important issue that needs to cater through the adoption of necessary policy is the working of the environment along with the recruitment process (Bratton and Gold 2012). Employees competencies to meet the objectives- McDonald employees are not much effective to help to meet the objectives of the customers. It is due to the dissatisfaction, which arises in the culture of the organization. Most often, the store is incorporated with the uncaring store owner. The employees are not satisfied with the atmosphere and feel pressure throughout the service. Moreover the low salary and long shifts enabled to provide poor service to the customers (Stahl et al. 2012). The Affective Events Theory, which explains the importance of the connection of the emotions and feelings, attached with the job satisfaction and the behaviors. McDonald needs to adopt the theory so to improve their performance for achieving the objectives of competencies (Mahni and Sidner 2016). Difference of superior performers with the average performers- The employees is same for the organization. However, they need to adopt policies through evaluating the performance of the superior performers (Shields et al. 2015). Below or average performers can be guided to upgrade their performance- The below or the average performers can upgrade the performance through the adoption of the theory of Expectancy. In the Expectancy Theory, which did Victor Vroom propose, establishes the performance management as performance is based on the expectations. The HR need to apply the Expectancy Theory through the interaction of the expectancy, Valence and the Instrumentality in the psychology to crate the motivation force (Magidson et al. 2014). Further the plan need to get extend through initiating appraisal and rewards based on attendance or through planning an event of fashion and declaring the winner for it. Development of the employees to meet the challenges- The employees are given on-job training for their development of the quality service and along with the operation skills. It also initiates training to make them learn about the recipes. The training does not consist of the detail about the challenges that the company can face and how to overcome from it. The initiate of proper training and development of the staff need to give. So that they could know about the challenge related with the organization (Council 2012). Employees motivated to meet the current and future challenges- Not only training but the employees of the McDonald are not motivated to achieve the challenges. The employees do not think about the challenges that need to face which will on the other hand relate to their growth. The companys only way to motivate the employees is through the reward programs. They include the incentives and bonus structure to motivate their employees (Pinder 2014). McDonalds need to adopt their theories of Maslows need hierarchy theory. Now, the five needs are separated into two levels high and low. Physiological and safety needs are categorized as lower order needs. This need could be satisfied through the external factors like wages. But the social, esteem and self actualization needs to cater through the satisfaction internally to a person. McDonalds need to understand the need for inter satisfaction to get motivated (Taormina and Gao 2013). Attract the people of right caliber- McDonald focuses on every employee to retain the future challenges. Now the company needs to understand that not all employees have the same plan and potential. The company needs to evaluate the performance and employees to give importance according to that. The training should also be given first priority to employees who are mostly willing to take challenges (Ford 2014). The current culture alignment with the vision, mission and values- McDonalds vision reveal the overall strategic direction of the company. The comprehensive statement of the vision statement states what it needs to achieve and makes the vision statement satisfactory. Although, the satisfactory vision statement needs to unite the aims of the different areas of the organization ( 2016). The mission statement is comprehensive in involves the aspect for the human resource management into it. Company needs to include innovation in its statement. The mission statement further did not include the research-based or the technology-based innovation of the product for its customer satisfaction ( 2016). HRM Plan The issues of the HR need to implement some changes through undertaking a comprehensive plan. McDonalds is indulged with different plans and actions. They need to make polices to address the issues that arise (Knight 2013). A 12 months HR plan has initiated to solve all the issues. Importance of the program Strategic Human Resource program would enable to resolve the problems, which affect the people of the organizations. All organizations want to cater all the needs of the employees and the organization. McDonalds main aim lies to provide quality service to their customers. Now this can be achieved through the application of comprehensive program in HR planning. The program would further help McDonald to enhance the environment improvement and the suppleness among the employees. The strategic program would enable the company to address the expectations of the employees (Bratton and Gold 2012). Objectives of the plan Enable the employee to boost the performance. To minimize the employee turnover and filling up of the consequent vacancies To progress the knowledge, standard, skill, ability and the discipline Objectives to execute the store through the development of higher employee commitment and the customer satisfaction Provide positive experience of the employment through the respectful employee treatment and efficiency with the labor and the employment laws. Establish the strong management plan for the identification and the development to create diverse workforce. Provide rewards to the employees for supporting of the performance culture. Communicate with the compilation of the McDonald employee through telling them about the value of the brands and build respects for the brand. Program plan The initial strategic plan of the HR lies to deliver the quality performance of the culture with the support of the employees and the organizational resources which are essential; for sustaining the superior performance of the business. It further emphasis to deliver it through the designing of the process and providing essential tools and transfer the knowledge of the leaders. It will enable to develop and improve the culture. There are areas where McDonalds need to improve its plan. The program is implemented according to the changes in those areas (Sparrow 2013). The main priorities are to increase the retention and developing the performance of the employee. It needs to include motivation as the key priority for the employee. Performance Management- The program gives its most importance on the performance of the employees. The employees performance need to boost up it will help them to decrease the retention and enables them to achieve their vision of providing quality service to its customers. In this regards the adoption of Goal-Setting Theory. The implication of this theory would enable the employees to found reliable, useful and the diverse work situations (Pervin 2015). The enabling of the difficult and specific goals would enable to perform higher performance. Career Development- the employee needs to understand the relation of development and the growth in their career. The plan includes the internal promotions. Employees can get internally promoted evaluating the time and performance in the organization. The career development needs to be assessed in the program through understanding the skills of the employee. The Gap needs to be understood between the level of competency and the future requirement of the employee. The gaps need to be access according to that (Rothwell et al. 2015). Training and development- McDonalds need to conclude proper training to their employees. It would enable them to face the challenges for the current situation as well as for the future (Wilson 2014). McDonald needs to adopt the two-Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg. The adoption of the theory would enable to the need of two effects. Either it would cause to satisfy with the job or it would prevent from being dissatisfied. Promotion/ Succession Planning- the program need to implement the most important area of promotion of the employees. Promotion would enable the employees to motivate this would rather help the employees to continue with the organization with better performance (DeVaro and Morita 2013). Change Management- McDonald need to adopt a systematic and proactive approach in the program. The program includes the change of management so that they could effectively lead the employees. The change management needs to overcome the resistance through constant communication with the employees (Pinder 2014). Staff culture- The program needs to address staff culture need to implement the plan of workforce planning issue. The salary of the employees will be increase yearly with a growth of 15%. Other than yearly increase the salary would also increase according to the performance (Council 2012). Recognition of performance- The plan includes evaluating the performance of all the employees. The employees would be rewarded according to that. The recognition does not only mean monetary recognition. The plan includes both the monetary as well as non-monetary recognition (Stone 2013). Employee Retention- The plan includes retaining the employees through the employee motivation theories. The plan involved the equity theory to motivate the employees. The theory contributes the employees expectation of equal return for their contribution in the job. The employee retention can increase through the motivation and job satisfaction (Hong et al. 2012). Recruitment- The program needs to adopt the effective selection criteria for the employee. The plan needs to select employees who are effective and efficient in terms of performance and growth (Stone 2013). Program Recommendation The plan of the HRM should address in a way so that it caters the needs of the organization. It should include effective management policies and procedures so that it fulfills the needs of the employees. The policy should include the culture of the organization. McDonalds need to communicate the contents of its manual through the usage of internet. The policies need to review and regulate the policies so that it fulfills the effectiveness of the law and the needs of the company. The company needs to appoint a particular person for the responsibility attached with the amendments. The person needs to address the changes accordingly. The introduction of the plan to the employees needs to obtain the confirmation that they understood and agreed to comply (Truss et al. 2012). The policy need to provide with the guidelines of practices and behavior of the employee in the company. The policy need to implement for safeguarding the establishing equality for the organization. The policy0020 should also cater he vision and the mission of the company for proving quality service for their customers (Wilson 2014). Conclusion McDonalds, which is the leading food chain of the world, gives its main focus on the customer service. The organization need to understand the importance of the retention of the employee to provide quality service. The company has many HR issues. The issues can be eliminating through the adoption of effective policy. A strategic HR plan has initiated covering the areas where the adoption of the policies is necessary. Reference list: (2016).McDonalds Official Global Corporate Website :: Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012.Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan. Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012.Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan. Council, S.B., 2012. Training development. DeVaro, J. and Morita, H., 2013. Internal promotion and external recruitment: a theoretical and empirical analysis.Journal of Labor Economics,31(2), pp.227-269. Ford, J.K., 2014.Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Psychology Press. Hong, E.N.C., Hao, L.Z., Kumar, R., Ramendran, C. and Kadiresan, V., 2012. An effectiveness of human resource management practices on employee retention in institute of higher learning: A regression analysis.International journal of business research and management,3(2), pp.60-79. Knight, E.J.M., 2013. Strategic Human Resources Management practice,are we there yet? A study of the Incorporation of a Strategic Plan.International Journal of Human Resource Management,71, pp.2104-2111. Magidson, J.F., Roberts, B.W., Collado-Rodriguez, A. and Lejuez, C.W., 2014. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: Expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.Developmental psychology,50(5), p.1442. Mahni Shayganfar, C.R. and Sidner, C., 2016. An Overview of Affective Motivational Collaboration Theory. Pervin, L.A. ed., 2015.Goal concepts in personality and social psychology(Vol. 23). Psychology Press. Pinder, C.C., 2014.Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press. Rewards, E. and Plans, P., 2013. Strategic human resource management.Instructor. Rothwell, W.J., Jackson, R.D., Ressler, C.L. and Jones, M.C., 2015.Career Planning and Succession Management: Developing Your Organization's Talentfor Today and Tomorrow: Developing Your Organizations Talentfor Today and Tomorrow. ABC-CLIO. Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., Johns, R., Robinson, J., O'Leary, P. and Plimmer, G., 2015.Managing Employee Performance Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press. Sparrow, P., 2013. 5 Strategic HRM and employee engagement.Employee engagement in theory and practice, p.99. Stahl, G.K., Bj, I. and Morris, S. eds., 2012.Handbook of research in international human resource management. Edward Elgar Publishing. Stone, R.J., 2013.Managing human resources. John Wiley and Sons. Taormina, R.J. and Gao, J.H., 2013. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: Measuring satisfaction of the needs.The American journal of psychology,126(2), pp.155-177. Truss, C., Mankin, D. and Kelliher, C., 2012.Strategic human resource management. Oxford University Press. Wilson, J.P., 2014. International human resource development: Learning, education and training for individuals and organisations.Development and Learning in Organizations,28(2).

Thursday, March 26, 2020

A Literary Review of Dantes Alighieris Inferno free essay sample

A Literary Review of Dante Alighieri’s â€Å"Inferno† Dante Alighieri’s â€Å"Inferno† is a narrative poem describing Dante’s journey through his perception of hell in search of salvation. Dante’s writing of this classic piece was greatly influenced by the politics in Florence during the late thirteenth century but the Inferno is much more than a political symbolic work of literature but is a beautifully poetic and allegorical. Inferno has made a memorable mark in European Literature as a great medieval poem written in vernacular language. Before Dante’s Inferno literary writings were almost all written in Latin, the language of the Catholic Church, but Dante used his native Tuscan dialect which helped unify the Italian language. Dante said his work to be a comedy but he didn’t mean it in a humorous sense but instead as a classical tragedy with a plot having a sad beginning but a happy ending. We will write a custom essay sample on A Literary Review of Dantes Alighieris Inferno or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I think the comedy can relate to everyone in some way as it deals with the questions of humanity and the afterlife. The Divine comedy consists of a prologue and 33 cantos. Dante and Virgil enter the wide gates of hell and descend through nine circles.In each circle they witness sinners and their punishments for the sins they committed while living on earth. In Dante’s view torture is godly justice. In Canto IX the sinners are the heretics. Canto XI contains the sinners that have committed really bad fraudulent acts. Canto XXXIV contains the souls of the most evil sinners, the traitors to their benefactors. Throughout Dante’s writing symbols are used to represent the will of God and the punishments for the sinners were a reflection of the sin that they committed against God. Dante’s travels take you through different levels of hell searching for salvation.The imperfections and sins of humanity are shown using allegory and irony is used to demonstrate what the consequences are for the actions that the sinners have committed. It begins with Dante the Pilgrim walking in the woods finding himself lost in the dark woods. He struggles to climb a higher road to light but is blocked by three fierce beasts. Here he encounters Virgil the dead poet and he promises to guide Dante through hell and Purgatory and there another spirit would lead him into Paradise because Virgil cannot. â€Å"Have pity on my soul,† cried Dante, â€Å"which ever you are, shade or living man! â€Å"No longer living man† says Virgil, â€Å"though once I was† (p1215, line 67) â€Å"Are you then Virgil, are then that fount from which pours forth so rich a stream of words? †(p1216, line 79). They enter hell which is described as a cave at the center of the earth. On their way down through hell they encounter ledges that are called circles and within these circles people’s souls are being punished for their sins. The punishments in Dante’s hell are a reflection of the sins that were committed on Earth. In Canto IX is the sixth circle which the heretics are punished. The punishment for the heretics was to lie in graves of fire for all eternity. The symbolic retribution here is that since they didn’t believe in life after death while on earth, now dead their bodies and souls were to lie in graves of god’s wrath for eternity. â€Å"There lie arch heretics of every sect, with all disciples; more than you think are packed within these tombs. Like heretics lie buried with their like and the graves burn more or less accordingly† (p1242, line 127). In Canto XI they continue on their way on through where the heretics are punished and the stench is so bad they must stop for a moment.Here Dante sees an inscription on a tomb. â€Å"Within lies Anastasius, the pope Photinus lured away from the straight path† (1246, Line8) Virgil than began to explain the structure of hell to Dante. He starts with the next circle, circle seven, which is the circle of the violent and is divided into three smaller circles. â€Å"Since violence can be used against three persons, into thee concentric rounds it is divided: violence can be done to God, to self, or to one’s neighbor† (p1246, line 29). Then Virgil explains the most evil sin, fraud, but that’s just the mild acts of the fraud, the really bad fraudulent sinners are in circle 9.Dante tells Virgil he understands but questions why these sinners in the previous circles are not also here in the city of flame. Virgil scolds Dante for his seemingly stupid question reminding him of the beloved book. Dante then asks him to explain the sin usury once again. Virgil explains that it is good for man to make a living from art and nature but not when they do it unnaturally, like generating money, this is a violation of nature therefore a sin. Virgil then notices that the constellations in the sky are changing and he says it’s time for them to move on.Canto XXXIV is the final region of hell, and as they approach Virgil shouts out â€Å"Vexilla regis prolevnt inferni† (p1323, line 1) telling Dante to keep his eyes out for Lucifer himself. Here all of the sinners are under ice lying in all different positions catching Dante’s attention. Virgil then decides it’s time for Dante to see Dis and that he will have to be brave. Dante is scared stiff, so scared he almost cannot write but he tries to explain what he is feeling and seeing. â€Å"I did not and was not living either! Try to imagine, if you can imagine, me there, deprived of life and death at once.The king of the vast kingdom of all grief stuck out with half of his chest above the ice† (p1323, line 25) Dante explains that Lucifer is so big that he himself is closer to the size of a giant. He has three heads, one red, one yellow, and one black and underneath them each are a pair of enormous bat like wings. He had six eyes and three mouths and Dante noticed he was eating sinners. The sinners here were traitors to their benefactors. Virgil points out Judas Iscanot, Brutus and Cassius who are all being eaten and who had all betrayed someone of great importance. Then Virgil says it’s time to go and he seems to be in a hurry.Dante’s Inferno at times is complicated reading because it is allegorical and many of its lines have two meanings and it has allot of word play but it is a wonderfully clever poem causing the reader to really think about the consequences of living an unjust life. Reference Alighieri, D. Inferno. Canto IX, XI, XXXIV. The Norton Anthology of World Literature. (2009). W. W. Norton Company. NY, NY.

Friday, March 6, 2020

whether or not the Brigade s essays

whether or not the Brigade s essays Violent films, such as the Brigade, have been blamed for causing crime rates to rise in our country: whether or not the Brigade should be taken off the air The crime rate in many cities is rising alarmingly. Some people have the idea that violent films, for example the Brigade, are the cause of real crime. However many others disagree that TV violence can be blamed for this rise. While both sides of the question of whether violent film the Brigade may or may not be to blame are supported by good reasons, personally, I am against the removal of violent films. Those who believe that violent TV films cause crime give many reasons. First, many viewers are children who have not formed a strong understanding of right and wrong. They often imitate what they see. If a person on TV gets what she or he wants by stealing it, a child may copy this behaviour. Thus, the child has learned unacceptable values. Second, many heroes in todays programs achieve their goals by violent means. For example, in the Brigade the main characters, Sasha Belyi, Kos, Fill, and Pchela, achieve their goals and become very rich by means of violence, illegality, and lawlessness which even comes to murder. Unfortunately, viewers might get used to this kind of life shown on TV and might use similar means to achieve their objectives, thus somehow resulting in an increase in crime rate. Finally, people get ideas about how to commit crimes from watching TV. For this reason heroes from violent films can sometimes set not a very good example. Other people, whom I also relate to, argue that violent films have no relation to the rise in crime rates. First, they claim that social factors, such as unemployment and homelessness, are to blame. Nowadays it is very difficult to lead productive life by means of having no job, no government support but having wife and children. It means that social press...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

HR. managment assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

HR. managment - Assignment Example It was a positive experience and I liked the way they work. The responsibility of HR management must be given to the line managers as they are aware of the condition at grass root levels. They are also responsible for executing the main objectives of an organization. I elected this course as I have always been interested in human behavior. Meeting new people and trying to understand them has always excited me. Now I am keener to make it my profession and I want to formally study and understand human resource management. I expect to learn from this course, how the human resource of an organization can be managed effectively to gain a competitive edge. Also, I would want to learn how to interact with the employees in an organization and more importantly how to motivate them to work at their full potential. The most important thing that I have learnt about human resource management in the past is that, it is not just important to recognize and reward good work (bad work) but also it is equally important to communicate why it is good (or